The Nakshatras – The 27 Lunar Mansions of Vedic Astrologyינואר 26, 2022
The Nakshatras are 27 constellations in the sky measuring 13 degrees 20 minutes each. This is the most ancient of zodiacs, mentioned in texts long before mention of Rasis.
Basis Above and Basis Below:
The basis above is what is in the mind of the deity of the Nakshatra when thinking about life upon earth. The basis below is the natural consequence, or how that mindset manifests when living upon earth. It is not what is consciously in the mind of a person, it is the natural predisposition and what grows from this natural predisposition.
Shakti is the power inherent in the Nakshatra and the power in the mind of the individual. This power is innate and does not need conscious interference or will power. It is as innate as the color of one's eyes even if the native is not aware of it.
0 – 13°20 Aries
Deities: Ashwini Kumaras
Symbol: the horse's head
Shakti: power to reach things quickly
Basis Above: creatures to be healed
Basis Below: healing therapies
Result: freedom from disease
Ashwini natives are swift and are able to travel at high speeds. They are natural healers and being in their presence in soothing. They are good listeners and will make excellent therapists and psychologists. This is an animal Nakshatra so there is an affinity for animals, especially horses. They also have an affinity for vehicles. Ashwini people usually reach lofty heights in their chosen profession but not though ambition. Roy Rogers, the cowboy actor, has his natal Moon here and he was featured in over one hundred movies with his Palamino and German Shepherd. Peter Fonda, the lead in "Easy Rider", also is an Ashwini native. The chopper was his metal stallion carrying him swiftly across the United States.
13°20 – 26°40 Aries
Deity: Yama, the god of death
Shakti: power to take things away
Basis Above: removal of life from the body
Basis Below: carry the soul to the realm of the ancestors
Result: Moving on to the next world
Bharani people are obsessed with death and/or transformation. Their power lies in taking things away. As long as the things taken away are negative or counterproductive, then the Bharani person works in line with the universe. For example, if one has a brain tumor, a Bharani surgeon will effectively be able to take it away. Garbage needs to be taken away. Psychologically, negative attitudes and self-defeating habits need to be taken away so that the person can better themselves. The vagina, as the symbol of Bharani, takes away the semen to produce another life, it takes away the vital essence of one being to create another. As a side note, Jim Morrison had his Moon in Bharani. Did you see the movie, "The Doors"? Throughout the entire movie, he spoke about and was obsessed with the subject of death. Many of his songs were about death.
26°40 Aries – 10°00 Taurus
Deity: Agni, the god of fire
Symbol: A razor or sharp blade
Shakti: To burn
Basis Above: Heat
Basis Below: Light
Result: Burning and purification
Krittika is also a transformative Nakshatra. Fire is the most purifying substance known. Krittika people are fiery, courageous and able to cut away the unnecessary to achieve their goals. Frida Kahlo had her Moon in Krittika and her art is filled with images of cut flesh and even a self-portrait of cutting her own hair. There are myths associated with Agni, the god of fire that tell of high sexual passion and illicit affairs with other married individuals, note that Katherine Hepburn's Moon is also under the sway of Krittika and her 25 year affair with the married Spencer Tracy was hardly a secret.
"The growing" or "the red"
10°00 – 23°20 Taurus
Deity: Prajapati, lord of creation
Symbol: an ox cart
Basis Above: plants
Basis Below: waters
Rohini is a soft, tender nakshatra. This was the favorite wife of the Moon. The deity, Prajapati is a creative deity, presiding over theatrical art, dancing and music and all growth. Rohini, as the favorite wife of the Moon, was highly talented in these arts as well as highly skilled in making love. In Vedic myth, the Moon stayed with Rohini to the detriment of his other wives because of her beauty grace and charm. The father of the brides, Daksha, cursed the Moon, so now he waxes and wanes as he visits all of his wives. Rohini people make wonderful dancers, Fred Astaire has his natal Moon here. Rohini people are concerned with growth, note that Sigmund Freud, doing research into the growing mind of the individual from babyhood, through toddler years, revolved an entire thesis around how the perceptual mind grows in psychology.
"the deer's head" "hunting"
23°20 Taurus – 6°40 Gemini
Deity: Soma, god of immortality
Symbol: deer's head
Shakti: the power to give fulfillment
Basis Above: to extend
Basis Below: weaving
Result: Making the world enjoyable
Mrigashira individuals search within the creation for satiation and usually find it. They extend themselves into creation, weaving a pattern of karmas, but these desires to be fulfilled are benign and the motivation behind them is to enjoy the creation. Mrigashira individuals are charming, changeable, timid, and impulsive. They like to hunt for the objects of their desires. The house placement of the Moon as well as any planets conjunct the Moon in Mrigashira will give clues as to what the native is hunting. Mrigashira is an animal Nakshatra, so there is a natural love of animals and nature unless planets are severely afflicted here. Also, as a side note, Mrigashira people often have big, beautiful, doe-like eyes. An example is Brooke Shields and Goldie Hawn who both have their Moons in this asterism.
"the moist one"
6°40 – 20°00 Gemini
Deity: Rudra, the storm-god
Symbol: a teardrop
Shakti: the power of effort
Basis Above: to hunt or search
Basis Below: reach the goal
Rudra, the god of Ardra, is a form of Shiva. Shiva is very unconventional and heretical in his actions and views, so Ardra people are inclined to be the same way. The symbol is a teardrop, so high emotion is associated with this asterism. Often Ardra individuals will be moved to tears, and since Shiva is the god of destruction and suffering, often Ardra people will suffer for what they want and to achieve their goals. In order to reach the goal, there is suffering and destruction of some sort along the way. Ardra's planetary ruler is Rahu, showing an obsessive, strong desire nature. Ardra natives can make their goals their obsessions, giving a powerful impetus for success, however if they do not have a beneficial and healthy goal, they can fall into addictions. Janis Joplin and Farrah Fawcett have their natal Moons placed here. The sad story of Janis Joplin's addictions ruining her after she achieved great success is well known.
"return to goodness and light"
20°00 Gemini – 3°20 Cancer
Deity: Aditi, mother of the gods
Symbol: a quiver of arrows
Shakti: the power of wealth or substance
Basis Above: wind, air
Basis Below: wetness, rain
Result: producing herbs and trees
Aditi, the mother goddess, is beyond form and boundless. She is goddess of space and also of the earth. Like the goddess, Punarvasu people love freedom and expansion. The have the natural ability to create wealth and prosperity. They have many resources from which to draw upon, represented by the quiver of arrows. They like to store and retain their creations and energy instead of spending it. They have a strong sense of virtue and of right and wrong. The ability to resurrect a failing marriage or career, or regain self-respect, prosperity or income is a natural talent among these natives. The person may become overly enamored of material well being and use it for selfish reasons, but will always return to the balanced, correct path. David Hasselhoff has his Moon here and has been through many rehabilitations for alcohol related problems and he also knows that his actions are self-defeating and seeks out help to renew himself.
"nourishing" "the flower"
3°20 – 16°40 Cancer
Deity: Brihaspati, teacher of the devas (divine beings, gods)
Symbol: udder of a cow
Shakti: the power to create spiritual energy
Basis Above: sacrificial worship
Basis Below: the worshipper
Result: possessing spiritual knowledge and energy
Brihaspati as the lord of Pushya rules knowledge and Pushya natives tend to be professionals in their field and quite knowledgeable. They will nourish anything they come into contact with and make it grow and thrive. As a result, this Nakshatra has the reputation of being the most auspicious Nakshatra. Luck naturally comes the way of the Pushya person. Prosperity and wealth are also attributes that seem to bless the life of the native of Pushya. Learning and mental energy are favored by this Nakshatra. Clint Eastwood, Joe Montana and Gloria Steinem all have their natal Moons in Pushya. All three of these individuals are extremely learned and fortunate in their respective fields.
16°40 – 30°00 Cancer
Deity: Sarpas, the deified serpents
Symbol: a coiled serpent
Shakti: the power to inflict with poison
Basis Above: the approach of the serpent
Basis Below: agitation or trembling
Result: destruction of the victim
Ashlesha natives entwine or embrace that which they desire. They have a hypnotic, sensual, undulating quality which can metaphorically paralyze the object of their gaze. The poison they inflict can be to destroy or an ambrosial nectar that will bring about illusions within the recipient. They do not have the magnetic, charismatic qualities to sway the masses, usually their hypnotic powers work best on a one to one basis. Snakes are representative of the kundalini energy so this asterism has intense mystical power. The sarpas inhabit the underworld, so the Ashlesha native will be fascinated by the hidden, occult, deeply psychological areas of life. They are also akin to snakes as they periodically shed their skin and go through many transformations in life. Examples of Ashlesha natives are Marilyn Manson where the fascination with the dark side of life is quite apparent. Barbara Streisand is also a native with an Ashlesha moon. As a worthy note, Ashlesha rules fingernails; she possesses these in abundance and they are world famous.
"the great one"
0 – 13°20 Leo
Deity: The Pitris, the deified ancestors
Symbol: throne room, royal court
Shakti: the power to leave the body
Basis Above: mourning
Basis Below: leaving the body
This Nakshatra is a very fated Nakshatra. These natives are highly relegated by what their ancestors have done and the desires of their ancestors. This Nakshatra has as its basis above, mourning, which above all is an awareness in the consciousness that things must be let go of and moved past. There are several phases in life that the person will move through and many people and situations they will be obliged to let go of. In the mythology of this Nakshatra, the Pitris live on the Moon, which represents that the ancestors are connected to our genetic make-up and guiding the destiny because of the link with consciousness. Because of the connection to the "throne room" and royal court, Magha natives often obtain a high level of success and fame in life. Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin have their natal Moon in this asterism.
"the former red one"
13°20 – 26°40 Leo
Deity: Bhaga, the god of wealth, especially inherited wealth
Symbol: legs of a cot
Shakti: the power to procreate
Basis Above: the wife, female partner
Basis Below: the husband, male partner
Result: the creation of a living being
All Purva Nakshatras deal with tremendous creative and conceptual powers. The Uttara Nakshatras are the natural follow up as they make the ideas and concepts into tangible results. Purva Phalguni is a highly creative Nakshatra with many artists and musicians as its natives. There is a predisposition to being overly sensual and fascinated by sexuality. These natives seem to create something of value while in partnership, not necessarily romantic partnership. When they create alone, it is most often unbalanced. There is a strong thirst for direct experience and a need to have concepts recognized. At one time the most famous woman in the world, Madonna, has her natal Moon here. Madonna's fascination with sexuality and artistic talents are well known. Most of her documented life she has been one half of a partnership.
"the latter red one"
26°40 Leo – 10°00 Virgo
Deity: Aryaman, god of chivalry and contracts
Symbol: a bed or a cot
Shakti: the power of wealth and accumulation through partnership
Basis Above: wealth obtained through one's family
Basis Below: wealth obtained through the partner or partner's family
Result: accumulation of wealth
Uttara Phalguni is an asterism that will take the concepts and ideas of the previous Nakshatra and turn them into tangible results. This is a wealth Nakshatra and the native is able to benefit greatly from the wealth of his family and the wealth of the partner if the Moon is unafflicted here. It does not necessarily mean that the native's family is wealthy or that the partner is wealthy, but that the native benefits from these avenues of wealth. This is also a Nakshatra where partnerships are favored and anything created in a partnership will thrive and bring wealth. Examples of this wealth through partnership can be seen through the natives of Barbara Bach, the wife of Ringo Starr and Eva Braun, the chere amie of Hitler.
10°00 – 23°20 Virgo
Deity: Savitar the Sun, giver of life
Symbol: a hand or fist
Shakti: the power to gain our desire and place it in our hand
Basis Above: seeking gain
Basis Below: obtaining the desire
Result: obtainment of wish and put in one's hand
Hasta natives can acquire the objects of the desires in their consciousness. If their Moon is afflicted, they will be confused about what they want. The symbol is the hand, so these natives are naturally dexterous and highly skilled. The deity, Savitar, rules over the control of the mind that gives higher awareness and the necessary focus to obtain what we want. Out of divine inspiration, these natives will usually unselfishly create with their hands. Orville Wright has his natal Moon here. Savitar also rules mantras and divine words, so the Hasta native will have a good capacity for writing and speaking. Sylvia Plath, the tragic but incredibly talented poet, had her natal Moon here as well. Her Moon however, was very dim and in the 8th house, hence her poems were about death and transformation of the psyche.
"the bright" "the distinguished"
23°20 Virgo – 6°40 Libra
Deity: Tvashtar or Vishvakarma, the celestial architect
Symbol: a shining jewel
Shakti: the power to accumulate merit
Basis Above: law
Basis Below: truth
Result: gain of honor in one's work
Chitra natives have the brightest star on the ecliptic, Spica, illuminating their constellation, hence their name, "the Bright". They like to shine in what they do and do it with a certain flair and magnetism. They also like to be completely responsible for their creations as the deity, Vishvakarma is the divine architect. Chitra natives try to do their best in everything they do and they are extremely motivated to follow their own Truth. They are bright, charismatic and usually powerful. If the Moon is severely afflicted, what they believe to be the Truth may be highly twisted, but they will still be motivated to follow their own personal path. These natives will have flashes of inspiration and will want to become self-realized. Righteous activity will result in accumulation of merit, the shakti of Chitra. Sylvester Stallone, Ted Turner and both George Bushes have their Moons in Chitra.
"the independent one"
6°40 – 20°00 Libra
Deity: Vayu, deified wind
Symbol: a young sprout swaying in the wind
Shakti: the power to scatter like the wind
Basis Above: movement in different directions
Basis Below: changing form
Wind means change. Reflect upon the saying, "Winds of Change". Swati natives take something and transform it. Their lives are characterized by much movement and change. They thrive upon this and get bored when things are stagnant. These natives have a pioneering spirit and are very independent. Because their shakti is to scatter like the wind, they will be adventurous and restless and love to travel. Wind governs speech and the communicative faculty, the vocal chords, so these native will have natural talents in speaking and singing. Vayu, the deity of this Nakshatra, is also lord of the celestial musicians, so these natives often love music or have talent in this area. Charles Chaplin, Miles Davis, a trumpet player of which blowing air is paramount, and Johnny Cash all have their Moons in this asterism.
"the forked one"
20°00 Libra – 3°20 Scorpio
Deities: Indra, two gods of lightning and fire
Symbol: leaf encrusted triumphal gateway
Shakti: the power to achieve many and various goals
Basis Above: to cultivate
Basis Below: the harvest
Result: fruits of the harvest
Vishakha, as a Jupiter ruled Nakshatra, is connected to divine spirit. These natives need to define spirituality for themselves or some kind of dharmic (purposeful) path must be put into place to guide their lives. These natives are also planners, they do not act impulsively. The inherent nature of cultivation and then reaping the harvest takes time, so these natives are very patient and persistent. They are multi-faceted and have many talents. They often will make good farmers and gardeners. Vishakha natives will cultivate their ideas and creations until they have reached perfection. The deities are ones of lightning and fire, so therefore are extremely intense and often will disregard others in their pursuit of their desire. Jimmy Carter, who was once a farmer and Jules Verne, who was both a writer of science fiction and a politician, both have their native Moons here.
3°20 – 16°40 Scorpio
Deity: Mitra, god of friendship, lord of compassion
Symbol: a lotus, archway
Shakti: the power of worship
Basis Above: to ascend
Basis Below: to descend
Result: Honor and abundance
Natives with Anuradha as their Nakshatra have a very fated path with regard to friends. Really good friends are naturally fated because they usually give us help when needed and boosts in career, finance, etc. Anuradha is also ruled by Saturn, the planet of fate. These natives usually take longer than usual to reach their goals and must go through many adversities in early life before they are able to come into their own as represented by the lotus. Honor and loyalty play a major role in their life as well. They are often very devoted to something, hence their shakti as power of worship. The worship does not have to be something spiritual, it can be a concept, a career, a person. The god Mitra, abhors violence and disputes, so these natives usually do not like passionate confrontations. This is a goal oriented Nakshatra and these natives reach their goals through the alliances they maintain with others. Bob Geldof, the instigator of the LiveAid concerts and Francis Ford Coppola have Anuradha as their Moons' Nakshatra.
16°40 – 30°00 Scorpio
Deity: Indra, king of gods, lord of storms
Symbol: earring, talisman
Shakti: the power to rise and conquer
Basis Above: to attack
Basis Below: to defend
Result: To gain supremacy among the gods
Jyeshtha, as all Nakshatras ruled by Mercury, is concerned with tangible results. As the eldest, and Indra as the deity, these people are fierce fighters and love a challenge. They are very powerful people and have the ability to rise above circumstances and become a hero. They tend to see life as a battle. Because Jyeshtha means the eldest, these people often hold positions of seniority and authority. There is very powerful sexual potency in this Nakshatra and these natives have a forceful impact on people and may be prone to adultery and illicit sexual encounters. Their sexual desire may cause them to seek fulfillment outside of their primary relationships. The Jyeshtha person can never be held down. Tiger Woods, Oprah Winfrey and Alexander the Great are some examples of Jyeshtha natives
0 – 13°20 Sagittarius
Deity: Nirriti, goddess of misery
Symbol: tied up bunch of roots, lion's tail
Shakti: the power to destroy or damage
Basis Above: to break
Basis Below: to crush
Mula people like to take things apart, literally destroy them, before they create anything. Mula natives are focused on getting to the root of a concept, situation or thing so they inevitably must destroy most of the thing to get at its essence. Mula is a constellation at the middle of the Milky Way, so these natives become intensely interested in their object of study and penetrate the core of whatever it is that they are focused upon. They like to uncover secret knowledge. Because of the naturally difficult aspects of this Nakshatra, Mula natives are prone to experience utter loss and disappointment at some time in their lives. As this is happening, Nirriti will give a healing salve to those in distress. She is also protector of those people who are mentally and physically disabled The Mula person will confront fear and it will flee. A Mula person has an inner warrior that can confront anything. Prominent Mula people are Henri Matisse and Krishnamurti.
"the former undefeated"
13°20 – 26°40 Sagittarius
Deity: Apas, goddess of waters
Symbol: a basket used for separating grain from the husk
Shakti: the power to invigorate or energize
Basis Above: strength
Basis Below: connection
Result: to gain the sea upon wishing for it
Purva Nakshatras, as mentioned before, are concerned with concepts and ideas. Purva Ashadha's deity, Apas, is the goddess of waters. In this context it means water as flowing. Purva Ashadha people are invigorating and inspiring. They like to feel connected. Water is what invigorates us in the body. When we are dehydrated we feel de-energized and uninvigorated; flowing water remedies this. These people have great luster and charisma. They use their natural strength to bring people together for a cause. Because it is "the former undefeated", these people tend to succeed quickly and success and victory. This is also a highly creative Nakshatra with a lot of sexual potency, so they tend to attract romantic partners and friends that help them win their goals. Other prominent people with this Nakshatra are Johnny Depp, Ernest Hemingway and Cher.
"the latter undefeated"
26°40 Sagittarius – 10°00 Capricorn
Deity: The Ten Vishvadevas, universal gods
Symbol: an elephant's tusk
Shakti: the power to grant an unchallengeable victory
Basis Above: strength to win
Basis Below: the goal that one can win
Result: becomes the victor that can never lose
Uttara Ashadha also denotes victory. However, since this is "the latter undefeated", these people tend to succeed later and have more patience and perseverance. Since it is Uttara, it is more concerned with tangible results than ideas and concepts. Many of these people take on incredible odds but are able to succeed anyway. George Washington and Abraham Lincoln have their Moons here. Uttara Ashadha people have an intense desire behind which they throw their strong will to achieve a victory that endures. They have leadership qualities and a natural diplomacy.
10°00 – 23°20 Capricorn
Deity: Vishnu, the Pervader
Symbol: three footprints
Shakti: the power to connect
Basis Above: seeking
Basis Below: paths
Result: connection of all things
As "the ear" is representative of Shravana, hearing becomes very important for this Nakshatra. Hearing becomes what we think. These natives want to connect things and people, so what they hear becomes a means for connection. What they hear decides their path. You know the saying, "That sounds good". This determines our decision when something sounds better than something else. This is also the Nakshatra of listening, so these natives make great listeners and develop a profound wisdom. Three footprints symbolize walking and traveling, so the Shravana person will like to walk, run and/or travel. Charles Manson has his Moon in this Nakshatra. He killed because he heard the White Album of the Beatles and believed it was heralding a race war. Henry Ford also has this asterism and what better way to connect people than to provide automobiles which made travel much faster and efficient.
23°20 Capricorn – 6°40 Aquarius
Dieties: the eight Vasus, gods of light and abundance
Symbol: a musical drum
Shakti: the power to give abundance and fame
Basis Above: birth
Basis Below: prosperity
Result: To revolve around the summit of the gods
Dhanishtha is a wealth Nakshatra. Its natives have the power to acquire immense wealth, whatever that may be. It is usually wealth of the financial kind, but it can also be measured in fame as well. Marilyn Monroe and Princess Diana, arguably the most famous women to have ever lived, have their Moons here. This is also a Nakshatra of Nature. The natives enjoy spending time in the woods away from the hustle and bustle of crowded cities. Many of these natives are born into wealth and then acquire even more as life progresses or they are born famous or within a famous family. They have a knack for acquiring fame and fortune if they are not born into it. Often these natives give birth to something original as that is there basis above. Fidel Castro gave birth to Communism in Cuba. He is considered an extremely successful leader amongst his own people. A musical drum as the symbol often make these natives musicians or gives a good rhythm as in dancing.
"possessing or requiring one hundred physicians or medicines"
6°40 – 20°00 Aquarius
Deity: Varuna, god of rain and water
Symbol: an empty circle
Shakti: the power of healing
Basis Above: all-pervasiveness
Basis Below: support for everything
Result: Firmness in understanding
Varuna, the deity, is "the coverer" or "the binder", thus these natives have a hidden, secret side that they hide from the world. Varuna rules the invisible so these natives are very unpredictable. Before Varuna was associated with water, he was the god of the "all-encompassing sky" and he was the support for creation. He actually created the Nakshatras, thus these natives seem to be all knowing and know things without any methodical practice. They can assimilate diverse information and unite it into an all-encompassing theory. Since Varuna created the Nakshatras, these natives exist to heal the creation. Each individual jiva needs to be healed, that is the purpose of creation, to heal, so that enlightenment can be reached. The all pervading aspect of Shatabisha shows up in the horoscope of J. Edgar Hoover, the former head of the FBI.
"earlier auspicious one"
20°00 Aquarius – 3°20 Pisces
Deity: Aja Ekapada, the one-footed goat
Symbol: double faced man, a sword, two front legs of a funeral bed
Shakti: the power of spiritual fire which is elevating
Basis Above: that which is good for people
Basis Below: that which is good for the gods
Result: to gain support for the entire world through spiritual knowledge
Purva Bhadrapada natives are inspired by what is good for all people. They are motivated by supporting the world through knowledge and do not have a need to be recognized for what they do. This is a devotional, worship centered Nakshatra. When they become interested in something, they will revere it. Worship is really attention. That which our attention focuses upon the most consistently and methodically is that which we worship. Hugh Hefner has his natal Moon here and through his worship of the female form, was able to create a publishing empire. Martin Luther King also has his Moon here and was able to create and promote concepts and ideas of fairness and equality.
"later auspicious one"
3°20 – 16°40 Pisces
Deity: Ahir Budhya, serpent of the deep
Symbol: two joined men, the back end of a funeral bed
Shakti: the power to bring rain
Basis Above: the raining of clouds
Basis Below: the growth of plants
Result: Nourishment and balance between earth and sky
Uttara Bhadrapada natives want to bring nourishment. The world is not stable because there is hunger and need. These natives want to bring stability by fulfilling needs. They want to bring about peace and balance. Uttara Bhadrapada's skakti is to bring the rain. Rain represents a quelling of a thirsty earth, but also the condensation of ideas and inspiration into tangible form that can do some good in a practical way. Bill Gates is an Uttara Bhadrapada native. He answered a need for the sharing of information and heightened communication and fulfilled that need with a concrete product. Now anyone almost anywhere in the world can find information about any subject or find what they want through a computer.
16°40 – 30°00 Pisces
Deity: Pushan, Sun as Nourisher and finder of lost things and animals
Symbol: a drum, fish
Shakti: the power of nourishment
Basis Above: cows
Basis Below: calves
Result: Nourishment of entire world
Revati natives will go out of their way to care for someone. They instinctively know what is needed on an immediate physical or psychological level and as a result are usually wonderful people to have as friends. Revati natives also love traveling and usually had great good luck while on travels. The symbol of a drum gives them good dancing and musical ability. They also love animals. If planets are severely afflicted here, there may come harm from animals. Angelina Jolie has her natal Moon here. She has been deeply moved by the hunger and poverty she has seen in third world countries and has now dedicated her life to helping those in need. She has adopted impoverished children and given them a life they would never have dreamed of. She is also constantly globe trotting to fulfill her new humanitarian obligations.